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koi fish breeding

September 04, 2023

1. Management of koi fish breeding water bodies


   You can choose to use groundwater, river water, tap water, etc. to breed koi. To make the color of koi bright and shiny, the water quality must be adjusted to the ideal state.


   Ideal water quality requires a slightly alkaline pH of 7.2-7.4, low content of iron ions, chloride ions, and sulfate ions, sufficient dissolved oxygen, and low hardness.


   Groundwater is often rich in heavy metal ions and has low dissolved oxygen, so it must be specially treated to be suitable for the growth of koi. The river water is often turbid, which is not only unsightly, but also contains some harmful substances such as 2 meters of waste water, etc., and the ammonia nitrogen is high, so it must be biochemically filtered before use.


   Tap water is treated water and comes from a convenient source, but the residual chlorine in the water is harmful to koi and must be dechlorinated. Aeration is commonly used to decompose and disperse the residual chlorine in the water before adding it to the fish pond.


   No matter what kind of water it is, it is not advisable to add too much new water directly into the fish pond in a short period of time, otherwise the fish will not be able to adapt and cause health problems. Rainwater has a low pH and contains a large number of undesirable factors, so it should be avoided as much as possible to mix it into the pool.


   2. How to build a koi breeding fish pond

There is no certain rule for the size of the pool. In order to watch the heroic swimming posture of the koi, it is usually better to make it bigger and deeper. The general requirements are 15-35m2 and the water depth is 1.2-1.8m. In northern areas, a depth of about 1.8-3M is better, and at least 80cm. If the water body is too small and shallow, it is difficult to breed huge koi, and shallow water is easily affected by the weather and sunlight. When it is hot, the water temperature rises. In winter, the water temperature is too cold, which often makes the fish feel uncomfortable and causes diseases. The walls inside the pool should be smooth and the pool surface should be as wide as possible. Uneven stones should not be used to avoid harming the koi. Try to avoid the appearance of stagnant water levels in the fish pond. The fish pond should be made into a streamline shape. Generally speaking, a square fish pond is easier to manage and convenient for feeding and viewing. It is best for the pool to have 2-3 hours of sunlight every day. There should be no large deciduous trees near the pool to avoid damaging the water quality.


   The steps to build a pool are as follows:


   (1) Dig the bottom of the pool deeply. If the bottom is soft, foundation treatment must be carried out, such as placing stones, driving piles, etc., to level the foundation.


   (2) Install underground drainage pipes.


   (3) Tie steel bars and put concrete on the bottom and sides of the pool, and be careful to prevent water leakage.


   (4) Pay attention to the matching of fish pond and filter pond.


   (5) Trim the bottom and surroundings of the fish pond, and apply cement to make the bottom and surroundings smooth. The bottom of the pond and the central drainage pipe are at an angle to facilitate drainage.


   (6) Check whether the inlet and drainage pipes and water pumps can operate normally, and check the circuit and oxygen supply system.


   3. Types of fish pond filtration and how to build fish pond filters


   Most people think that filtration is just about removing suspended matter from water and making the water clear. In fact, its role is far from that. The complete biochemical filtration system can not only remove suspended solids and excess algae in the water, but also can not only remove suspended solids and excess algae in the water through the filtration system, but also decompose harmful substances in the water, such as ammonia nitrogen, through the biochemical bacteria in the filter village , nitrite, etc., to convert them into substances harmless to fish.


   Filtration is divided into: (1) physical filtration (2) chemical filtration (3) biochemical filtration (4) plant filtration


   (1) Physical filtration is to use various filter materials or auxiliary agents to remove dust, jelly, suspended matter, leaves, etc. in the water to keep the water transparent. The more traditional and simple method is to use sand and stone particles to penetrate the water to remove floating matter visible to the naked eye. Generally, the most commonly used fish pond filter brushes, fish pond biochemical cotton and other filter materials have dual functions of physical filtration and biochemical filtration.


   (2) Chemical filtration is a filtration method that uses filter materials to remove various ionic compounds or odors that are harmful to fish dissolved in the water by absorption. Commonly used filter materials include far-infrared bacteria house coral sand, medical stone, phosphorus stone, etc.


   (3) Biochemical filtration is to use the nitrifying bacteria attached to the filter material to decompose the fish excrement, such as feces, residual bait and the nitrogen-containing organic matter or ammonia produced into harmless substances. It is the most important part of the entire fish pond filtration system. Commonly used filter materials include PuLushi fish pond filter brushes, fiber cotton, far-infrared bacteria houses and biochemical balls. Be careful not to flush out or kill these bacteria when cleaning or disinfecting the filter tank.


   (4) Plant filtration uses plants in the water to absorb harmful factors in the water. Generally available water plants include duckweed, calamus, etc., which have well-developed root systems. In addition to the function of plant filtration, they can also absorb ammonia nitrogen and other fertilizers that are beneficial to plant growth.


   To make the pond water clean, suitable for fish viewing and to help fish grow and enhance their color, a filter circulation device must be used

The specific method is to connect the water pipe from the deepest part of the fish pond bottom to the sedimentation tank. After being treated with various filter materials, it is pumped back to the pool with a circulating water pump to continuously filter the water body. The settling tank is the first part of the filter tank, where the suspended solids and heavy metal ions settle, and the bottom of the settling tank is connected to the drain through the valve to discharge the sewage.


   The size of the filter tank is about 1/3-1/5 of the fish pond. The larger the filter tank area, the better the filtering effect. If you want to add tap water or groundwater to the fish pond, you should put the new water into the filter tank and let it aerate for a few days to allow the residual chlorine in the tap water to evaporate. It is not advisable to add new water directly to the fish pond.


   Since biochemical bacterial decomposition requires oxygen, the filter tank must be equipped with a blast pipe to increase dissolved oxygen in the water. Air compressors are commonly used to press air directly into the water, and pure oxygen is also used. In addition, due to the strong sunlight in outdoor pools, germicidal lamps can be used to kill excessive green algae in the water. If necessary, a shading device can be used to cover about 1/3 of the fish pond to prevent ultraviolet rays from affecting the color of the pond water and fish.


   4. Preparation before raising koi and daily management of the pool


   After the fish pond and filtration are completed, the cement alkali must be removed first and the water can be tested before fish can be raised. Because the new fish pond concrete contains a large amount of cement alkali, it needs to be soaked in water with glacial acetic acid. Generally, after the new pool is filled with water, add about 50g of glacial acetic acid to each 1m2 area of the pool and mix it evenly. After 24 hours, drain it and repeat it. After 5 days, drain it and soak it in clean water for 2-3 times, and then stock some cheap koi. Enter the pond to understand the safety of the water quality. If the koi respond well to the water test, you can place your favorite koi.


   Of course, since cement alkali will dissolve in the pond for a long time, more new water should be added in the first six months, and the health of the fish should be paid close attention to. If the reaction is not normal, the pond must be moved as soon as possible.


   The daily management of fish ponds requires attention to keeping the pond water clean. If there are non-fish feces or residual bait, leaves, etc., they must be drained away as soon as possible. It is generally best to drain the bottom water once every three months. The filter tank also needs to be cleaned once a year or so. Bottom sludge and drain away sewage. Draining substances harmful to fish in the water in a timely manner and maintaining good water quality are the most important points in pool management, and are also the key to raising koi well.

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